Ferox Flow Zero Valent Iron

Ferox Flow

Ferox Flow Zero Valent Iron is a highly reactive, remediation grade, (ZVI) powder proven to work in the treatment of environmentally contaminated zones adjacent/down-gradient to contaminant source areas.

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ZVI Ferox PRB Sample

Ferox PRB

Hepure’s Ferox PRB reactive zero valent iron was exclusively designed for groundwater and soil remediation. Ferox PRB has uniform density and mesh size while being free of rust, dust, and potentially harmful lubricating oils. The result is simple: better reactivity. This provides a more effective and efficient remediation solution. And to you that means success for your client. Our zero valent iron is extremely pure and, from the selection of raw materials, to the manufacturing through packaging, all processes satisfy demanding product standards. Quality assurance testing is performed at every stage of production so product consistency is maintained.

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Ferox Target Zero Valent Iron

Ferox Target

Ferox Target Zero Valent Iron Powder is engineered for environmental remediation applications within the unsaturated and saturated source area(s).

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WHY CHOOSE ZERO VALENT IRON POWDER?

Since entering the environmental remediation market in 2000, Hepure’s ZVI reactive iron powders have become the most widely used micron-scale iron powders in the market, with documented successful outcomes at more than 150 sites across North America.

Zero valent iron (ZVI) powders are inert metallic iron shavings capable of treating chlorinated solvents abiotically, avoiding the production of harmful daughter products (DCE and VC). The use of ZVI as an in situ chemical reductant has become increasingly popular with the advancement of application processes. With smaller particle sizes and increased sophistication of injection equipment, zero valent iron powder is commonly injected in source areas and hard to reach areas where a typical permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is not feasible. Hepure also offers Ferox Plus, and emulsified zero valent iron solution.

Benefits of Zero Valent Iron Remediation (ZVI):

  • Cost-effective – ZVI remediation provides the most value in consideration of reactivity and longevity in comparison to chemical oxidants
  • Safe – does not contain harmful chemicals and are safer to handle when compared to chemical oxidants
  • Long-term treatment (3-15 years longevity) – zero valent iron powder provides a long term treatment solution
  • Sustainable/recycled/green – Hepure’s ZVI is recycled iron cuttings from production facilities which may be otherwise disposed at a landfill
  • Destroys contaminants with no toxic end products or by-products – ZVI is a biotic reaction which destroys the contaminate with no intermediation by products such as dichloroethane and vinyl chloride
  • Synergistic with bioremediation treatments – conditions the aquifer for ongoing bioremediation without providing potential bio-toxic chemicals or unfavorable aquifer conditions such as pH
  • Not impacted by Soil Oxidant Demand (SOD) – does not react with the soil so all reactivity can be directed to the contaminant

ZVI Case Studies

Hepure’s reactive iron powder lines are produced from high quality cast iron feedstock and proprietary catalytic iron powders. The product line is available in several grades and mesh sizes for various applications. Using high quality feedstock, a proprietary grinding and pulverizing method creates reactive iron powders suitable for the most demanding of remediation environments.

From the selection of raw materials through manufacturing and packaging, all processes satisfy Hepure’s demanding product standards. Quality assurance testing is performed at every stage of production so that product consistency is assured

Ferox ZVI Iron powder

Figure 1. TCE Degradation First-Order Rate Constants for Various Iron Powders When Normalized to Surface Area

Detailed kinetics studies have revealed that not all iron powders are the same, and that Hepure’s Ferox iron powders have exceptional value. When these kinetic values are normalized to mass or surface area concentrations, Ferox Flow gave the most favorable results over for the degradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs). Ferox Flow had more than twice the activity of leading competitor’s iron powders.

ZVI Powders surface area graphic

Figure 2 – TCE Degradation of First-Order Rate Constants Normalized to Mass Per Dollar

In a recent evaluation of ZVI iron powders performed in his laboratories, Dr. Paul Tratnyek noted that, “The rates of TCE degradation from the column experiments in this study are surprisingly consistent with previously published work.

“Ferox Flow gave the most favorable results of the ZVIs tested in this study.”

Dr. Paul G. Tratnyek is a Professor at Oregon Health & Science University and is a leading researcher on ZVI reactive iron powders.

Ferox ZVI Powders comparison

Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Iron Powders

AnalysisHepure’s Ferox PRBLeading Competitor
Mesh Size: 20/6096%84%
Mesh Size: >604%16%
% Iron95.48%94.36%
% Sulfur0.08%0.56%
% Carbon2.10%2.13%
Density (g/cm3)2.922.8
ColorGray MetallicBlack Metallic
Oil ContentsNo oil smell, no oil visibility under microscopeWith oil smell, oil visible under microscope
Oil0%1%

Zero-Valent Iron Reactivity Testing and Project Design

Treated Contaminants

 Organic CompoundsInorganic CompoundsOthers
Methanestetrachloromethane
trichloromethane
dichloromethane
Chromium
Nickel
Lead
Uranium
Technetium
Iron
Manganese
Selenium
Copper
Cobalt
Cadmium
Zinc
Ethaneshexachloroethane
1,1,1-trichloroethane
1,1,2-trichloroethane
1,1-dichloroethane
Anion
Contaminants
Sulfate
Nitrate
Phosphate
Arsenic
Ethenestetrachloroethene
trichloroethene
cis-1,2-dichloroethene
trans-1,2-dichloroethene
1,1-dichloroethene
vinyl chloride
Propanes1,2,3-trichloropropane
1,2-dichloropropane
Aromaticsbenzene
toluene
ethylbenzene
Otherhexachlorobutadiene
1,2-dibromoethane
freon 113
N-nitrosodimethylamine

Pathways for Contaminant Reduction

Zero valent iron is capable of reducing chlorinated compounds to harmless components, as shown in the general reaction formula below:

2Fe0 + R-Cl + 3H2O → 2Fe2+ + R-H + 3OH + H2 + Cl (R = Aryl group)

The chlorinated compounds can be reduced as follows:

1. Reduction at the metal surface in the presence of a proton donor

Fe0 + R-Cl + H+ → Fe2+ + R-H+ Cl (1)

2. Continuation of reaction 1 by the further oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+

2Fe2+ + R-Cl + H+→ 2Fe3+ + R-H+ Cl (2)

3. The hydrogen gas which is produced in the corrosion reaction of water with zero-valent iron can also be involved in the dechlorination of VOCs.

Fe0 + 2H2O → Fe2+ + H2 + 2OH (3)

H2 + R-Cl → R-H + H+ + Cl (4)

In the estimate of the amount of zero valent iron needed, the reaction of zero valent iron with dissolved oxygen (5), water (3) and other oxidized organic and inorganic components (e.g. nitrate, sulfate) must also be taken into account.

2Fe0 + 4H+ + O2 → 2Fe2+ + 2H2O (5)