Emulsified ZVI

Ferox Plus Emulsified ZVI (eZVI)

Emulsified zero valent iron (eZVI) is remediation chemistry that consists of nano/micro scale ZVI, surfactant, food grade vegetable oil, and water that is used to reductively dehalogenate halogenated hydrocarbons such as TCE, PCE, CFC, and VC.

Chlorinated DNAPL remediation has had limited success in the past due to the expense and limited effectiveness of available technology. Ferox Plus bridges the gap, providing a biological reductive dechlorination solution capable of DNAPL source destruction.

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About Ferox Plus eZVI:

The Hepure team boasts over 50 years of experience in groundwater and soil remediation and Hepure’s Ferox zero valent iron (ZVI) has become an industry standard for in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) for the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals. Our commitment to scientific innovation has resulted in the introduction of Ferox Plus eZVI for groundwater and soil remediation.

Ferox Plus eZVI combines Ferox ZVI with emulsified vegetable oil, vitamins, and nutrients in a site-ready formulation. Ferox Plus is designed to stimulate both chemical reduction and anaerobic biological reductive pathways in a long-lasting and easily distributable format.

Ferox Plus has been successfully emplaced at several VOC sites to date. Field reports include comments about the advantages of the site-ready slurry formulation, the ease with which the slurry can be injected and distributed in the subsurface, as well as the demonstrated increase in radius of influence (ROI) at depth.

Our ability to source the highest grades of materials and our control of the manufacturing process allows us to offer eZVI at the most cost-effective price in the marketplace.

Product Information:

Reductive reactions involving micron-scale zero valent iron (ZVI) have been proven effective and cost efficient for in situ remediation of sites containing chlorinated solvents and certain reducible metals and radionuclides. The use of biodegradable organic liquids, such as vegetable oils as an additive, has more recently proven to extend the effectiveness and efficiency of ZVI. The EVO performs several functions in Ferox Plus. First, it solubilizes the chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), enhancing their availability in the aqueous phase. Secondly, it creates an environment that maximizes contact between ZVI particles and solubilized CVOCs. Finally, biodegradation of the EVO promotes biological reductive dehalogenation.

The emulsified system consists of a surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion with the iron particles contained within the aqueous interior of the emulsion droplet (see Figure 1). The smallest iron particles produce the most stable iron-emulsion system; thus, it is desirable in these systems to use micron-scale iron particles.

Ferox Plus is ideal for source areas where chlorinated dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) and/or high dissolved concentrations of CVOC’s are present. Similar eZVI mixtures have shown to be very effective in vadose zone as well as saturated zone applications. Hepure’s Ferox ZVI has proven to be a market leader in reactivity and effectiveness. Combining our high quality Ferox ZVI with EVO produces an eZVI product with superior reactivity and longevity at a cost effective price.

Ferox Plus eZVI Benefits:

  • Reduced treatment time
  • Biodegradable byproducts
  • Site-ready format – no mixing in the field
  • Easy to inject
  • Distributes well in the subsurface, with a greater radius of influence than competing product
  • Treats DNAPL source areas

Typical Applications:

  • Dry cleaners
  • Metals degreasing and solvent cleaning operations
  • Chemical manufacturing facilities
  • Government facilities
  • Pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities
  • Aerosol manufacturing facilities
  • Pigment, paint, dye and ink manufacturing facilities
  • Adhesive manufacturing facilities

Product Specifications

IngredientWeight %
Food grade edible soy bean oil 30-40%
Iron 10-40%
Emulsifiers, thickeners, and proprietary nutrient package containing nitrogen, phosphorus and vitamin B12 3-6%
Sodium Lactate 2-4%

Emulsified Zero Valent Iron Droplets: Graphic Rendition and Micrograph3


(1) Berge, N. D.; Ramsburg, C. A. Oil-in-Water Emulsions for Encapsulated Delivery of Reactive Iron Particles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 43, 5060–5066.
(2) Quinn, J.; Geiger, C.; Clausen, C.; Brooks, K.; Coon, C.; O’Hara, S.; Krug, T.; Major, D.; Yoon, W.-S.; Gavaskar, A.; Holdsworth, T. Field Demonstration of DNAPL Dehalogenation Using Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 39, 1309–1318.
(3) Geiger, C.; Coon, C.; Clausen, C.; Brooks, K.; Huntley, C.; Quinn, J.; O’Hara, S.; Krug, T.; Major, D. OPTIMIZATION OF EMULSIFIED ZERO VALENT IRON PARTICLES FOR REDUCTION OF DNAPL. In; Gavaskar, A. R.; Chen, A. S. C., Eds. Monterey, CA, 2013; pp. 1–8.
(4) Cary, J. W.; Simmons, C. S.; McBride, J. F. Infiltration and Redistribution of Organic Liquids in Layered Porous Media. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1994, 58, 704–711.

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