Ferox Zero Valent Iron Powders

Why Choose Zero Valent Iron Powder?

Since entering the environmental remediation market in 2000, Hepure’s ZVI reactive iron powders have become the most widely used micron-scale iron powders in the market, with documented successful outcomes at more than 150 sites across North America.

Zero valent iron (ZVI) powders are inert metallic iron shavings capable of treating chlorinated solvents abiotically, avoiding the production of harmful daughter products (DCE and VC). The use of ZVI as an in situ chemical reductant has become increasingly popular with the advancement of application processes. With smaller particle sizes and increased sophistication of injection equipment, zero valent iron powder is commonly injected in source areas and hard to reach areas where a typical permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is not feasible. Hepure also offers Ferox Plus, and emulsified zero valent iron solution.

Benefits of Using Zero Valent Iron Powder (ZVI):

    • Cost-effective – ZVI remediation provides the most value in consideration of reactivity and longevity in comparison to chemical oxidants
    • Safe – does not contain harmful chemicals and are safer to handle when compared to chemical oxidants
    • Long-term treatment (3-15 years longevity) – zero valent iron powder provides a long term treatment solution
    • Sustainable/recycled/green – Hepure’s ZVI is recycled iron cuttings from production facilities which may be otherwise disposed at a landfill
    • Destroys contaminants with no toxic end products or by-products – ZVI is a biotic reaction which destroys the contaminate with no intermediation by products such as dichloroethane and vinyl chloride
    • Synergistic with bioremediation treatments – conditions the aquifer for ongoing bioremediation without providing potential bio-toxic chemicals or unfavorable aquifer conditions such as pH
    • Not impacted by Soil Oxidant Demand (SOD) – does not react with the soil so all reactivity can be directed to the contaminant

ZVI Case Studies

 

Hepure Zero Valent Iron Powders

Ferox ZVI Iron powderHepure’s reactive iron powder lines are produced from high quality cast iron feedstock and proprietary catalytic iron powders. The product line is available in several grades and mesh sizes for various applications. Using high quality feedstock, a proprietary grinding and pulverizing method creates reactive iron powders suitable for the most demanding of remediation environments.

From the selection of raw materials through manufacturing and packaging, all processes satisfy Hepure’s demanding product standards. Quality assurance testing is performed at every stage of production so that product consistency is assured.

 

 

ZVI Powders surface area graphicFigure 1. TCE Degradation First-Order Rate Constants for Various Iron Powders When Normalized to Surface Area

Detailed kinetics studies have revealed that not all iron powders are the same, and that Hepure’s Ferox iron powders have exceptional value. When these kinetic values are normalized to mass or surface area concentrations, Ferox Flow gave the most favorable results over for the degradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs). Ferox Flow had more than twice the activity of leading competitor’s iron powders (Figure 1).

 

 

 

Ferox ZVI Powders comparisonFigure 2 – TCE Degradation of First-Order Rate Constants Normalized to Mass Per Dollar

In a recent evaluation of ZVI iron powders performed in his laboratories, Dr. Paul Tratnyek noted that, “The rates of TCE degradation from the column experiments in this study are surprisingly consistent with previously published work.

“Ferox Flow gave the most favorable results of the ZVIs tested in this study.”

Dr. Paul G. Tratnyek is a Professor at Oregon Health & Science University and is a leading researcher on ZVI reactive iron powders.

 

Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Iron Powders

Analysis Hepure’s Ferox PRB Leading Competitor
Mesh Size: 20/60 96% 84%
Mesh Size: >60 4% 16%
% Iron 95.48% 94.36%
% Sulfur 0.08% 0.56%
% Carbon 2.10% 2.13%
Density (g/cm3) 2.92 2.8
Color Gray Metallic Black Metallic
Oil Contents No oil smell, no oil visibility under microscope With oil smell, oil visible under microscope
Oil 0% 1%

 

Zero-Valent Iron Reactivity Testing and Project Design


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