The reactivity of Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) is directly correlated to the surface area of the iron product. This is due to more surface area being available on finer ZVI than the coarser. Progress has been made to increase surface area through a variety of processes (e.g. sponge ZVI) however these tend to be cost prohibitive given the large amount of ZVI typically needed in remediation and water treatment projects. The reactivity (K) adjusted for surface area is directly correlated to the reactivity adjusted for mass of iron. The chart below shows this relationship. This means we can assume that finer irons are generally more reactive than coarser irons and also estimate the amount of iron needed based on the reactivity determined in laboratory testing.
Ferox Nano is available in a form of a dry powder or a water slurry. The nanoparticles exhibit an average size of 50 nm, an average surface area of 20-25 m2/g and typically about 80% ZVI. The packaging of Ferox Nano allows greater flexibility in mixing and application without reactive losses which are so common in nano iron projects.
Ferox Nano’s uniform particle size provides exceptional cost-effective performance. The substantial number of catalytic sites on the powder surface ensures superior reactivity and supports lower ZVI loading requirements in comparison to other ZVI materials. nZVI nanoparticles are effective for reduction of a wide range of contaminants. Groundwater remediation using nZVI is performed In-situ and nZVI nanoparticles are transported into the groundwater through the geological wells directly on a contaminated site.
The small particle size results in good migration potential and larger radius of influence. A large surface area produces higher reactivity and degradation rate caused by better contact with contaminants. The small particle size also has lower sedimentation rates for easier application without the need to use thickening agents (guar gum etc.), application through screened wells, in some cases by the gravity feed
Ferox Nano can be injected using existing injection methods and equipment. The very small particle size in ideal for injection into low permeability groundwater systems without using high pressure. Ferox Nano can also be applied into existing remediation wells.
Ferox Nano is mixed into a slurry prior to shipping or on the job site depending on client needs.
Ferox Nano is available in a form of a dry powder is vacuum packed in 20 kg bags. Each of those bags go into a corrugated box (7.5” x 7.5” x 10”) and are palletized (we can fit 100 boxes on a pallet, which is 2 metric tons). This way the material can sit for a little while if it is consumed overtime.
The typical average particle size is between 2.5 and 3.5 microns based on a Fisher Sub-Sieve Sizer (FSSS) and Laser Particle Size Analyzer. The FSSS analysis uses surface area measurements to determine the average particle size of the sample based on air permeability, material density (7.86 kg/dm3 in the case of iron), and resulting pressure changes in the packed sample container. Using this method, the average particle size of our EC electrolytic iron powder is 2.5 – 3.5 micron.
Ferox Micron is very pure, typically containing 99% iron and very few additional metals. The analytic result shown below is the percent of metals in a typical sample.
C 0.012%, Pb < 0.0005%, Mn 0.30%, Hg < 0.0005%, S 0.16 As < 0.0005%, Ni 0.003%, Co 0.002%, Cu 0.001%, Zn 0.003%
Ferox Micron can be injected using existing injection methods and equipment. The very small particle size in ideal for injection into low permeability groundwater systems without using high pressure.
The mixing and injection process for Ferox Micron Zero Valent Iron (mZVI) is not different than for coarse ZVI.